En los laboratorios de la Universidad Nacional Villa María (UNVM) un equipo de trabajo lleva adelante una investigación destinada a evaluar la contaminación en las aguas subterráneas debido a la utilización de herbicidas. El estudio se denomina: “Impacto de los herbicidas s-triazinas en aguas subterráneas de agroecosistemas de Córdoba. Estudio de estrategias para optimizar su remoción”En el trabajo se proponen dos objetivos, por un lado evaluar el impacto que tiene el herbicida “atrazina”, derivado de la familia de las s-triazinas, en aguas subterráneas en establecimientos lecheros, y por otro, buscar estrategias para remediar ambientes contaminados mediante un aislamiento nativo de la bacteria Arthrodobacter sp. AAC22.

La “atrazina” es un herbicida que se usa en el campo para controlar malezas en cultivos de maíz y de sorgo. Es el segundo de mayor aplicación a nivel país después del glifosato y “resulta interesante estudiarlos porque hay antecedentes que demuestran la presencia residual del herbicida en aguas superificales y subterráneas”, comenta la becaria e integrante del equipo de investigación, Noelia Urseler.

El grupo de trabajo es dirigido por la doctora Elisabeth Agostini, de la Universidad Nacional Río Cuarto (UNRC) y la doctora Carolina Morgante de la UNVM. También está integrado por la doctora Romina Bachetti , ingeniera Agrónoma Rosa Natalia Ingaramo , Noelia Urseler, Florencia Caporalini y Evangelina Miloc.

Instancias del trabajo:

Las tomas de muestra se realizarán cada dos meses, a lo largo de casi dos años, para ver cómo se van distribuyendo y variando las concentraciones del herbicida en un período de tiempo determinado. La zona de muestreo abarca la cuenca media del río Tercero, entre Pampayasta y Villa María.

En la actualidad las investigadoras están poniendo a punto las técnicas de extracción de la atrazina en las muestras de agua para poder detectar las concentraciones del herbicida en las muestras tomadas.

Urseler comenta que, por el momento, el grupo de trabajo ha conseguido aislar una bacteria Arthrodobacter sp. AAC22 que tiene la capacidad de biodegradar este herbicida. Es decir que “la bacteria se alimenta de la Atrazina utilizándola como fuente de nutriente disminuyendo el impacto de éste en el ecosistema”, acalaró la becaria.

A partir de esto intentarán generar diferentes estrategias para biorremediar ambientes que estén contaminados, es decir, tratar de volverlos a su estado original, ya sea en suelo como en agua.

El aporte de este tipo de investigaciones se ve reflejado desde el punto de vista ambiental pudiendo determinar el impacto que están teniendo las actividades agropecuarias o agrícolas en nuestra región y obteniendo un relevamiento de esta problemática.

Perfil de la investigadora:

Noelia Urseler es de Chazón, tiene 29 años y es Ingeniera Agrónoma graduada de la UNVM. Actualmente posee una beca doctoral de Conicet y está inscripta en el Doctorado en Ciencias Mención Agroalimentos que la Universidad dicta a través del Instituto de Ciencias Básicas y Aplicadas.

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