En los laboratorios del campus de la Universidad Nacional de Villa María (UNVM) se está gestando el primer laboratorio de biogás de Argentina. Es una de las metas que tiene la investigación denominada “Revalorización energética de residuos orgánicos para la producción de biocombustibles y bioabonos“, dirigida por Roberto Manno e integrada por Mara Cagnolo, Florencia Ribero, Julieta Oviedo y Maria Jose Galvan.

La licenciada en Biotecnología y becaria Conicet por su tesis doctoral, Maria José Galván , especificó que en la actualidad están trabajando puntualmente con «lodos» (estiércol) de porcinos, tomando muestras de diferentes campos, que luego son utilizadas para analizar su actividad metanogénica y posteriormente, en conjunción con otros sustratos, producir biogás.

“Unos de los objetivos del grupo de investigación es evaluar diferentes tipos de lodos. Estamos armando una lodoteca regional para saber cuáles son los lodos activos en la región y determinar el potencial de producción de biogás de los diferentes subproductos que nos ofrecen las agroindustrias aledañas”, indicó.

A raíz de esta experiencia, surge la necesidad de crear el primer laboratorio de biogás del país que “permitiría la simulación y previa caracterización y diseño de mezcla de sustratos”. Según resaltó esto significa generar un espacio de “innovación” para la región en particular y el país en general.

Aseguró que la zona de Villa María cuenta un gran potencial de biomasa, especialmente por la gran cantidad de subproductos generados.

En este sentido, destacó entre los beneficios del laboratorio, la producción de un biogás a escala laboratorio y escalamiento a volúmenes mayores; con el correspondiente control de calidad del biocombustible generado.

De esta manera, ser un laboratorio de “referencia de biodigestión anaeróbica”, generando así datos experimentales “reales” previamente a la incorporación de esta tecnología a gran escala.

“Con el laboratorio se fortalecerán las recientes líneas de investigación y profesionales en el área del biogás, ya que en Argentina son muy pocos los especialistas”, destacó la investigadora.

Además de formar recursos humanos, se podrán y transferir los resultados a productores y empresas. “Para ello es bueno tener un laboratorio de referencia”, dijo.

Según explicó la especialista, la producción de biogás trae beneficios tanto energéticos como ambientales. Detalló que no solo se trata de obtener dicho combustible sino que también se pueden reutilizar sus nutrientes y aplicarlos al suelo, permitiendo no tener que depender de una red eléctrica o de gas convencional.

Además, de una disminución de los gases del efecto invernadero GEIs producto de estas actividades, reduciendo el impacto ambiental, sin mencionar la revalorización que significa otorgarle un fin a lo que generalmente es considerado residuo.

Perfil de la investigadora:
María José es egresada de la Universidad Nacional de Tucumán de la Licenciatura en Biotecnología, profundizó sus conocimientos en la industria del Biodiesel en Santiago del Estero, en 2012 comenzó una adscripción en la materia Energías Renovables de la Licenciatura en Ambiente y Energías Renovables de la UNVM haciendo aportes desde su perspectiva de trabajo sobre biocombustibles. En la actualidad es docente del espacio curricular Gestión de Efluentes y es becaria de Conicet en el marco del doctorado en Ciencias de la Ingeniera que realiza en la Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto.

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